Policy Analysis

Analysis of the National Health Policy

Author: BC Aryan, a student at SLS Pune


In the last 14 years, the national health policy has changed in four major ways. Health priorities of people in the country has changed, mortality rates have significantly gone down. Robust health care industries are growing at a significant rate. Expenditure rates have grown towards health care and lastly, the economic growth has enabled the fiscal capacity to grow.

Throughout the years, the aims of the National Health Policy have substantially changed. In this paper, we will try and analyze in detail the National Health Policy, 2017 along with understanding the previous policies while analyzing how the policies have helped shape our country’s health system. One common goal that all National Health Policies have had throughout the year is the same, the promotion of good healthcare services. The latest policy aims on building on the progress of the National Health Policy of 2002.

Health Sector in India—Structure, Roles, and Functions

The Health Sector in India is public, government, and personal. Private region healthcare providers, registered underneath the Clinical Establishment Act, are owned and run by means of persons or a crew of individuals. These consist of dispensaries, clinics, nursing properties, and hospitals that may additionally exercise Allopathic, Ayurvedic, Homeopathic or Unani structures of medicine. The public sector, on the different hand, comes under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), Government of India.

The roles and obligations of the public region fluctuate from the non-public sector.  While the personal zone establishments are extra inclined in the direction of healing aspects, the public area takes greater holistic strategy along with research, disorder prevention and control, sanitation, and cleanliness missions. At the degree of operation, the federal nature of the Constitution permits for two levels: Union and State governments. The Seventh Schedule of the Constitution describes the three lists: Union, State and Concurrent entailing the important points of roles and duties at every level.

Role of Government of India in Preservation and Promotion of Public Health: Health Missions, Five Year Plans and National Health Policies

The Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is accountable for the implementation of a number of programs associated with health and household welfare, prevention and management of the most important communicable ailments, and advertising of normal and indigenous structures of drugs at the country-wide level. It additionally undertakes research and presents technical help and dollars for manage of seasonal disorder outbreaks and epidemics. The Ministry is additionally accountable for the implementation of World Bank-assisted programs like manage of malaria, tuberculosis, AIDS and others. Programs having implications at the countrywide degree come beneath the Concurrent listing like household welfare and populace control, clinical training and prevention of meal adulteration. Public health, hospitals, dispensaries and sanitation fall beneath the State listing Government of India 2015.

Year Name of Mission

1996 Intellectual Disability-related Schemes (Vikaas, Samarth, Gharaunda, Niramaya, Sahyogi, Gyan Prabha, Prerna, Sambhav, Bhadte Kadam and Disha)

2002   Sarwa Shiksha Abhiyan

2005   National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)

2008   National Mission on Medicinal Plants

2012   National AYUSH Mission

2013   National Urban Health Mission (NUHM)

2014   Swachh Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission)

2015   Affordable Medicines and Reliable Implants for Treatment (AMRIT)

2018   National Health Protection Mission (Ayushman Bharat Yojana/Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana—PMJAY)

Historical Evolution of Health Policies, Plans and Programmes in India

The first complete health coverage and graph document, Health Survey and Development Committee Report, i.e., Bhore Committee Report, used to be organized in 1946. Herein, a specified diagram for National Health Service with widespread insurance used to be envisaged. The Bhore Committee introduced a distinct evaluation of the existing scenario with suggestions. Further, the Sokhey Committee 1948. This used to be a sketchy file in contrast to the Bhore Committee report.

Murlidhar Committee used to be set up in 1959 to consider the development made in the first two plans and grant recommendations. Though there had been successful testimonies with regard to the management of disease-specific deaths, upgrades in lifestyles expectancy, and discounts in loss of life rate; the committee sold ahead the troubles of availability and accessibility to healthcare services.

Subsequently, the Third Five Year Plan proposed the institution of clinical colleges, lookup institutes and education centers for doctors, nurses and auxiliary staff.

The Fifth Five Year Plan used to be a landmark as it stated the widening hole between rural and city areas with admiration to all health indicators. It as a result centered on the accessibility of health offerings in rural areas via the Minimum Needs Programme. The emphasis on the eradication of communicable ailments and the provision of health infrastructure continued.

The Seventh Five Year Plan too emphasized AIDS, most cancers, and coronary heart illnesses with the improvement of super-specialized centers. This led to a growth in company hospitals and diagnostic centres.

The Twelfth Five Year Plan used to be organized after the session of the public. It is referred to as Universal Health Coverage thru Essential Health Package and examines the social determinants of health. Major thrust areas have been lowering out-of-pocket expenditure (OOP), making sure accessibility of vaccines, drugs and technology, and growing staff AYUSH.

The National Health Policy 2017 got here after 14 years hole and consequently the context of health modified in many ways. The developing variety of non-communicable ailments and infectious diseases; upward shove of the personal sector; elevated expenditure on health and rising financial boom enabling greater fiscal capability have fashioned the 2017 coverage. The coverage targets supplying health care in an ‘assured manner’ to all. There is a shift from sick- care to well-being and well-being of individuals. The Make in India mannequin governs the manufacturing of tablets and devices. AYUSH is given distinct emphasis, specifically yoga. While the coverage is a complete document, it is but to be viewed whether or not the aims are carried out or now not.

Other than the NHPs, many different insurance policies had been introduced from time to time that are intently linked with enhancing the health reputation of people. These are National Population Policy, National Nutrition Policy, National Water Policy and National Environmental Policy to identify a few.

Constitutional Provisions: Acts and Statues in India

The Government of India envisages the aim of ‘Health for all’ as health care is a necessary element of social safety and development. As per the Constitution, public health, sanitation, dispensaries, and hospitals come below the purview of kingdom listing whilst populace manipulation and household planning are in Concurrent listing. The applicable constitutional provisions are referred to as follows:

  • Article 21 ensures the vital proper to lifestyles that casts a duty upon the State to maintain the lifestyles of each and every character by means of imparting on-the-spot clinical aid.
  • Article 23 prohibits site visitors in human beings—important in the context of prostitution, STDs and HIV AIDS.
  • Article 47 reads ‘The State shall regard elevating the degree of vitamin and the general of residing of its humans and enhancement of public health as amongst its principal duties. The State shall endeavor to convey about the prohibition of the consumption, without for clinical purposes, of intoxicating drinks and of tablets injurious to health.

The authorities pass quite a number of acts and legal guidelines to promote healthful lives for all. These acts pertain to scientific career and education, nursing occupation and education, pharmacists and pharmacy education, dental occupation and education, intellectual health, tablets standards, classified ads pertaining to pills and medicines, prevention of the extension from one State to any other of infectious or contagious illnesses affecting human beings and prevention of adulteration of foodstuffs and drugs.

The Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 and Regulations 2002; the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947; the Dentists Act, 1948; the Pharmacy Act, 1948; the Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992; the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970, and the Homeopathy Central Council Act, 1973 and the Clinical Establishment Act 2010 are associated to satisfactory of schooling and coaching of health personnel.

  • Registration of Births and Deaths Act, 1969
  • Spread of Epidemics Disease Act, 1994
  • The Cigarettes and different Tobacco Products (Prohibition of trade, commerce, production, grant and distribution) Act, 2003
  • The Mental Health Act, 1987
  • The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985
  • The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940
  • The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954
  • Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full       Participation) Act, 1995
  • Various female Health-related Acts
  • The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961,
  • Family Court Act 1984,
  • The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
  • The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956

To guard young people and their rights are The Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of misuse) Act, 1994, The Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottlers and Infant Foods (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 1992, The Juvenile Justice Act, 1986, The Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 and The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929.

Recently in 2010, The Clinical Establishments (Registration and Regulation) Act was once added with 2010 the objective of imparting registration and legislation of scientific organizations in us of with a view to prescribing the minimal requirements of services and offerings for them. In 2011, pictorial health warnings on cigarettes and different tobacco merchandise have come to impact.

Other than these many acts/statutes come beneath the jurisdiction of MoHFW together with The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 (37 of 1954), Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 (34 of 1971), Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994 (57 of 1994), The Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (34 of 2006) and The Clinical Establishments (Registration and Regulation) Act 2010

Since proper health and health have overlapped with a range of different dimensions, many ministries collectively have to work for the merchandising of healthcare facilities. Various ministries that at once or circuitously make contributions in the direction of the true health of the Indian population. Of the whole fifty-eight ministries are associated with the provision of healthcare offerings and promoting of right health.

  • Ministry of Health and household welfare
  • Ministry of Social, Justice and Empowerment
  • Ministry of Women and Child Development
  • Ministry of Human Resource Development
  • Ministry of Rural Development

International Treaties and Conventions

Alma Ata Declaration, 1978: The Declaration of Alma Ata used to be adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health Care in Kazakhstan in 1978. It is the first worldwide assertion and for this reason a necessary landmark. The purpose of this announcement used to be to obtain ‘Health for all, especially thru the most important health care.


Within the extensive framework of nested health missions, policies, programs, acts, and statutes lies the overarching goal of presenting top health and well-being to all. The various challenges pose risk to accomplishing targets. Concerted efforts and devoted lookup are nonetheless falling brief of targets. The health region is broad and annoying and requires a complete precise assessment of all preceding committee reviews and pointers and in-depth floor fact checks. The function of authorities desires to be more advantageous alongside extra income allocation for profitable consequences in the health sector.


  1. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7122919/.
  2. ASSOCHAM (2011) Emerging trends in healthcare—a journey from bench to bedside, pp 1–50
  3. Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (2016) National health profile 2016. Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/file/National%20Health%20Profile %202016212.pdf
  4. Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (2018) National health profile 2018. Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Retrieved from http://www.cbhidghs.nic.in/WriteReadData/l892s/Before%20Chapter1.pdf
  5. Duggal R (2014) Health planning in India, www.cehat.org/cehat/uploads/files/a168.pdf
  6. Government of India (2011) Annual report to the people on health Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, pp 1–76
  7. iigh.unu.edu/publications/blog/indias-national-health-policy-2017-and-2030-agenda-for-sustainable-development.html
  8. nhm.gov.in/images/pdf/guidelines/nrhm-guidelines/national_nealth_policy_2002.pdf
  9. vikaspedia.in/health/nrhm/national-health-policies/national-health-policy-2017#

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